— Roman Soldiers —

The Roman Army was extremely important in explaining the success of the Romans and the expansion of the Roman Empire. The Roman Army, at the peak of its power, conquered what we now call England/Wales, Spain, France, most of Germany, the northern coast of Africa, the Middle East and Greece. The Ancient Roman equivalent would be:

Britannia = England/Wales
Gallia or Gaul = France
Germania = Germany
Hispania = Spain
Aegyptus = Egypt
Achaea = Greece
Italia = Italy

The Roman Army is recognised by historians as an extremely effective fighting machine. Ironically, its success also led to its downfall. The lowest level of soldier in the Roman Army was the legionnaire. Between 5000 and 6000 legionaries made up a legion that was commanded by a legatus. Legionnaires were trained to fight in a disciplined and co-ordinated manner. A whole legion could be punished for failing to fight well in battle – even if the Romans did win the battle itself! Training was brutal and tough but it paid huge dividends for the Romans.
A legionnaire went into battle equipped with three main weapons:

The Pilum – This was similar to a javelin today. The legionaries would throw it at the enemy as they ran at them. It was not for hand-to-hand fighting. The main purpose of the pilum was to disrupt the defence of the enemy. They would be too concerned worrying about avoiding the incoming weapons to focus on what the legionnaires themselves were doing. By the time the enemy had re-organised itself, the Romans were upon them. If a pilum did hit you, it could do serious damage as the thinner top section would crumple into you on impact and removing it would be very painful. The wooden stock of the pilum was also re-useable as the Romans only had to add another spear head to it.

The Gladius – The gladius was the main weapon for the Roman soldier when he got into close quarter fighting. This was a sword which was kept razor sharp. Anyone on the receiving end of a blow from a gladius would suffer severe injuries.

The Pugio – The pugio was a small dagger used in combat if all else had been lost.
Along with these weapons, the legionnaire carried a curved shield called a scutum. This gave the Roman soldier a great deal of protection as it curved around his body. It was also used by the Romans when they used what was known as a tortoise formation to move forward to a target that was well defended. A ‘tortoise’ was when the soldiers lifted the scutums flat above their heads so that they effectively interlocked and protected them from any missiles thrown at them from on high.

‘The tortoise’ in action:


Roman Armour:


— Roman Battles —

The following is a list of Roman Battles fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, the Roman Empire, and sometimes the Byzantine Empire, organized by date:

6th century BC

509 BC – Battle of Silva Arsia – the Romans defeated the forces of Tarquinii and Veii led by the deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. One of the Roman consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, is killed in battle.
502 BC – Battle of Pometia – the Latins won over the Romans, one of the consuls badly wounded by a spear that penetrated through his groin.
5th century BC

497 BC – Battle of Lake Regillus – Aulus Postumius Albus Regillensis defeats the Tarquinii, led by Tarquinius Superbus.
495 BC – Battle of Aricia – consul Appius Claudius Sabinus Inregillensis and P. Servilius Priscus Structus defeat the Aurunci.
482 BC – Battle of Antium – the Volscians defeat consul Lucius Aemilius Mamercus.
482 BC – Battle of Longula – consul Lucius Aemilius Mamercus defeats the Volscians the day after his defeat in the Battle of Antium.
480 BC – Battle of Veii (480 BC) – consuls Marcus Fabius Vibulanus and Gnaeus Manlius Cincinnatus win heavy battle against Veians and their Etruscan allies. Consul Gnaeus Manlius Cincinnatus and former consul Quintus Fabius are slain.
477 BC – Battle of the Cremera – All the Fabii except Quintus Fabius Vibulanus are killed in battle with the Veians
477 BC – Battle of Temple of Hope – consul Gaius Horatius Pulvillus fights indecisive battle with the Etruscans
477 BC – Battle of Colline Gate (477 BC) – consul Gaius Horatius Pulvillus has indecisive victory over the Etruscans soon after the Battle of Temple of Hope
458 BC – Battle of Mons Algidus – Cincinnatus defeats the Aequi
446 BC – Battle of Corbione – Titus Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus leads Roman troops to defeat the Aequi and the Volsci.
4th century BC

396 BC – Battle of Veii – Romans complete conquest of Etruscans
390 BC – Battle of Allia River – Gauls defeat the Romans, then sack Rome.
342 BC – Battle of Mount Gaurus – Roman general Marcus Valerius Corvus defeats the Samnites.
341 BC – Battle of Suessula – Roman consul Marcus Valerius Corvus defeats the Samnites once more.
339 BC – Battle of Vesuvius – Romans under P. Decius Mus and T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus defeat the rebellious Latins.
338 BC – Battle of Trifanum – Roman general T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus decisively defeats the Latins.
321 BC – Battle of the Caudine Forks – Romans under Spurius Postumius Albinus and T. Verturius Calvinus are defeated by the Samnites under Gaius Pontius.
316 BC – Battle of Lautulae – Romans are defeated by the Samnites.
310 BC – Battle of Lake Vadimo – Romans, led by dictator Lucius Papirius Cursor, defeat the Etruscans.
305 BC – Battle of Bovianum – Roman consuls M. Fulvius and L. Postumius decisively defeat the Samnites to end the Second Samnite War.
3rd century BC

298 BC – Battle of Camerinum – Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus in the first battle of the Third Samnite War.
297 BC – Battle of Tifernum – Romans under Quintus Fabius Maximus and Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus defeat the Samnite army led by Gellius Statius
295 BC – Battle of Sentinum – Romans under Fabius Rullianus and Publius Decimus Mus defeat the Samnites and their Etruscan and Gallic allies, forcing the Etruscans, Gauls, and Umbrians to make peace
293 BC – Battle of Aquilonia – Romans decisively defeat the Samnites.
285 BC – Battle of Arretium – A Roman army under Lucius Caecilius is destroyed by the Gauls
283 BC – Battle of Lake Vadimo – A Roman army under P. Cornelius Dolabella defeats the Etruscans and Gauls.
282 BC – Battle of Populonia – Etruscan resistance to Roman domination of Italy is finally crushed.
280 BC – Battle of Heraclea – First engagement of Roman and Greek armies, the latter led by Pyrrhus of Epirus, who is victorious, but at great cost.
279 BC – Battle of Asculum – Pyrrhus again defeats the Romans but once again suffers significant casualties in the process.
275 BC – Battle of Beneventum – Inconclusive encounter between Pyrrhus and the Romans under Manius Curius.
261 BC – Battle of Agrigentum – Carthaginian forces under Hannibal Gisco and Hanno are defeated by the Romans, who attain control of most of Sicily.
260 BC –
Battle of the Lipari Islands – A Roman naval force is defeated by the Carthaginians
Battle of Mylae – A Roman naval force under C. Duillius defeats the Carthaginian fleet, giving Rome control of the western Mediterranean.
258 BC – Battle of Sulci – Minor Roman victory against the Carthaginian fleet near Sardinia.
257 BC – Battle of Tyndaris – Naval victory of Rome over Carthage in Sicilian waters.
256 BC –
Battle of Cape Ecnomus – A Carthaginian fleet under Hamilcar and Hanno is defeated in an attempt to stop a Roman invasion of Africa by Marcus Atilius Regulus.
Battle of Adys – Romans under Regulus defeat the Carthaginians in North Africa
255 BC – Battle of Tunis – Carthaginians under Xanthippus, a Greek mercenary, defeat the Romans under Regulus, who is captured.
251 BC – Battle of Panormus – Carthaginian forces under Hasdrubal are defeated by the Romans under L. Caecilius Metellus.
250 BC – Siege of Lilybaeum – Siege on the Carthaginian city of Lilybaeum by Roman army under Gaius Atilius Regulus Serranus and Lucius Manlius Vulso Longus. Carthaginian victory.
249 BC – Battle of Drepana – Carthaginians under Adherbal defeat the fleet of Roman admiral Publius Claudius Pulcher.
242 BC – Battle of the Aegates Islands – Roman sea victory over the Carthaginians, ending the First Punic War
225 BC – Battle of Faesulae – Romans are defeated by the Gauls of Northern Italy.
224 BC – Battle of Telamon – Romans under Aemilius Papus and Gaius Atilius Regulus defeat the Gauls.
222 BC – Battle of Clastidium – Romans under Marcus Claudius Marcellus defeat the Gauls.
218 BC –
Summer – Battle of Lilybaeum – First naval clash between the navies of Carthage and Rome during the Second Punic War.
Fall – Battle of Cissa – Romans defeat Carthaginians near Tarraco and gain control of the territory north of the Ebro River.
November – Battle of the Ticinus – Hannibal defeats the Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio the elder in a cavalry fight.
18 December – Battle of the Trebia – Hannibal defeats the Romans under Tiberius Sempronius Longus with the use of an ambush.
217 BC
Spring – Battle of Ebro River – In a surprise attack, Romans defeat and capture the Carthaginian fleet in Hispania.
24 June – Battle of Lake Trasimene – In another ambush, Hannibal destroys the Roman army of Gaius Flaminius, who is killed.
Summer – Battle of Ager Falernus – Avoiding destruction with deceit, Hannibal escapes Fabius’ trap in this small skirmish.
216 BC –
2 August – Battle of Cannae – Hannibal destroys the main Roman army of Lucius Aemilius Paulus and Publius Terentius Varro in what is considered one of the great masterpieces of the tactical art.
First Battle of Nola – Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus holds off an attack by Hannibal.
215 BC – Second Battle of Nola – Marcellus again repulses an attack by Hannibal.
214 BC – Third Battle of Nola – Marcellus fights an inconclusive battle with Hannibal.
212 BC –
First Battle of Capua – Hannibal defeats the consuls Q. Fulvius Flaccus and Appius Claudius, but the Roman army escapes
Battle of the Silarus – Hannibal destroys the army of the Roman praetor M. Centenius Penula.
Battle of Herdonia – Hannibal destroys the Roman army of the praetor Gnaeus Fulvius.
211 BC –
Battle of the Upper Baetis – Publius and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio are killed in battle with the Carthaginians under Hannibal’s brother Hasdrubal Barca
Second Battle of Capua – Hannibal is not able to break the Roman siege of the city.
210 BC –
Second Battle of Herdonia – Hannibal destroys the Roman army of Fulvius Centumalus, who is killed
Battle of Numistro – Hannibal defeats Marcellus once more
209 BC –
Battle of Asculum – Hannibal once again defeats Marcellus, in an indecisive battle
First Battle of Lamia – Romans defeated by Philip V of Macedon
Second Battle of Lamia – Romans defeated by Philip V once more
208 BC – Battle of Baecula – Romans in Hispania (Iberia) under P. Cornelius Scipio the Younger defeat Hasdrubal Barca
207 BC –
Battle of Grumentum – Roman general Gaius Claudius Nero fights an indecisive battle with Hannibal, then escapes north to confront Hannibal’s brother Hasdrubal Barca, who has invaded Italy
Battle of the Metaurus – Hasdrubal is defeated and killed by Nero’s Roman army.
Battle of Carmona – Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio besiege the city of Carmona and take it from Hasdrubal Gisco
206 BC –
Battle of Ilipa – Scipio again decisively defeats the remaining Carthaginian forces in Hispania.
Battle of the Guadalquivir – Roman army under Gaius Lucius Marcius Séptimus defeats a Carthaginian army under Hannón at Guadalquivir.
Battle of Carteia – Roman fleet under Gaius Laelius defeats a Carthaginian fleet under Adherbal
204 BC – Battle of Crotona – Hannibal fights a drawn battle against the Roman general Sempronius in Southern Italy.
203 BC – Battle of Bagbrades – Romans under Scipio defeat the Carthaginian army of Hasdrubal Gisco and Syphax. Hannibal is sent to return to Africa.
202 BC, 19 October – Battle of Zama – Scipio Africanus Major decisively defeats Hannibal in North Africa, ending the Second Punic War
200 BC – Battle of Cremona – Roman forces defeat the Gauls of Cisalpine Gaul
2nd century BC

198 BC – Battle of the Aous – Roman forces under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeat the Macedonians under Philip V
197 BC – Battle of Cynoscephalae – Romans under Flamininus decisively defeats Philip in Thessaly
194 BC –
Battle of Placentia – Roman victory over the Boian Gauls
Battle of Gythium – With some Roman assistance, Philopoemen of the Achaean League defeats the Spartans under Nabis
193 BC – Battle of Mutina – Roman victory over the Boii, decisively ending the Boian threat.
191 BC – Battle of Thermopylae – Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio defeat Antiochus III the Great and force him to evacuate Greece
190 BC –
Battle of the Eurymedon – Roman forces under Lucius Aemilius Regillus defeat a Seleucid fleet commanded by Hannibal, fighting his last battle.
Battle of Myonessus – Another Seleucid fleet is defeated by the Romans
December, Battle of Magnesia – (near Smyrna) Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio and his brother Scipio Africanus Major defeat Antiochus III the Great in the decisive victory of the war.
189 BC –
Battle of Mount Olympus – Romans under Gnaeus Manlius Vulso allied with Attalus II of Pergamum deliver a crushing defeat to an army of Galatian Gauls
Battle of Ancyra – Gnaeus Manlius Vulso and Attalus II defeat the Galatian Gauls again before Ancyra, in what was an almost identical repeat of the Battle of Mount Olympus.
181 BC – Battle of Manlian Pass – Romans under Fulvius Flaccus defeat an army of Celtiberians.
171 BC – Battle of Callicinus – Perseus of Macedon defeats a Roman army under Publius Licinius Crassus.
168 BC, 22 June – Battle of Pydna – Romans under Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus defeat and capture Macedonian King Perseus, ending the Third Macedonian War
148 BC – Second battle of Pydna – The forces of the Macedonian pretender Andriscus are defeated by the Romans under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus in the decisive engagement of the Fourth Macedonian War
147 BC –
Battle of the Port of Carthage – Roman forces under Lucius Hostilius Mancinus are defeated by the Carthaginians.
Second Battle of Neferis – Roman forces under Scipio Aemilianus win a decisive victory against Carthage marking the turning point in the Third Punic War.
146 BC –
Battle of Carthage ends: Scipio Africanus Minor captures and destroys Carthage, ending the Third Punic War
Battle of Corinth – Romans under Lucius Mummius defeat the Achaean League forces of Critolaus, who is killed. Corinth is destroyed and Greece comes under direct Roman rule.
109 BC – Battle of the Rhone River – Roman force under Marcus Junius Silanus are defeated by the Helvetii
108 BC – Battle of the Muthul – Roman forces under Caecilius Metellus fight indecisively against the forces of Jugurtha of Numidia
107 BC – Battle of Burdigala – Roman forces under Lucius Cassius Longinus are defeated by the Helvetii
105 BC, 6 October – Battle of Arausio – Cimbri inflict a major defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus
102 BC – Battle of Aquae Sextiae (modern Aix-en-Provence)- Romans under Gaius Marius defeat Teutons, with mass suicides among the captured women
101 BC – Battle of Vercellae – Romans under Gaius Marius defeat the Cimbri, who are entirely annihilated.
1st century BC

89 BC –
Battle of Fucine Lake – Roman forces under Lucius Porcius Cato are defeated by the Italian rebels in the Social War
Battle of Asculum – Roman army of C. Pompeius Strabo decisively defeats the rebels in the Social War.
87 BC – 86 BC – Siege of Athens and Piraeus – Siege of the rebellious Greek city state of Athens which had sided with the Pontic invaders during the First Mithridatic War by Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Roman victory.
86 BC – Battle of Chaeronea – Roman forces of Lucius Cornelius Sulla defeat the Pontic forces of Archelaus in the First Mithridatic War
85 BC – Battle of Orchomenus – Sulla again defeats Archelaus in the decisive battle of the First Mithridatic War.
83 BC – Battle of Mount Tifata – Sulla defeats the popular forces of Caius Norbanus in the First Roman Civil War.
82 BC –
Battle of the Asio River – Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius defeats a Popular army under Gaius Carrinas in the First Roman Civil War.
Battle of Sacriporto – Battle of the First Roman Civil War fought between the Optimates under Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix and the Populares under Gaius Marius the Younger, Optimate victory.
First Battle of Clusium – Battle of First Roman Civil War fought between the Optimates under Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix and the Populares under Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, Popular victory.
Battle of Faventia – Battle of First Roman Civil War fought between the Optimates under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius and the Populares under Gaius Norbanus Balbus, Optimate victory.
Battle of Fidentia – Battle of First Roman Civil War fought between the Optimates under Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus and the Populares under Lucius Quincius, Optimate victory.
Second Battle of Clusium – Pompei Magnus defeats a numerically superior Populares army under Gaius Carrinas and Gaius Marcius Censorinus.
Battle of Colline Gate – Sulla defeats Samnites allied to the popular party in Rome in the decisive battle of the Civil War.
80 BC – Battle of the Baetis River – Rebel forces under Quintus Sertorius defeat the legal Roman forces of Lucius Fulfidias in Hispania.
73 BC –
Battle of Cyzicus – Roman forces under Lucius Lucullus defeat the forces of Mithridates VI of Pontus
Battle of Mount Vesuvius – Spartacus defeats Gaius Claudius Glaber
72 BC –
Battle of Cabira or the Rhyndacus – Lucullus defeats the retreating forces of Mithridates, opening way to Pontus
Battle of Picenum – Slave Revolt led by Spartacus defeat a Roman army led by Gellius Publicola and Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus
Battle of Mutina I – Slave Revolt led by Spartacus defeat another army of Romans.
71 BC –
Battle of Campania – Slave Revolt led by Spartacus defeat a Roman army.
Battle of Campania II – a Roman army under Marcus Crassus defeat Spartacus’s army of slaves.
Battle of the Siler River – Marcus Crassus defeats the army of Spartacus.
69 BC – Battle of Tigranocerta – Lucullus defeats the army of Tigranes II of Armenia, who was harbouring his father-in-law Mithridates VI of Pontus
68 BC – Battle of Artaxata – Lucullus again defeats Tigranes.
66 BC – Battle of the Lycus – Pompey the Great decisively defeats Mithridates VI, effectively ending the Third Mithridatic War
62 BC, January – Battle of Pistoria – The forces of the conspirator Catiline are defeated by the loyal Roman armies under Gaius Antonius.
58 BC –
June – Battle of the Arar (Saône) – Caesar defeats the migrating Helvetii
July – Battle of Bibracte – Caesar again defeats the Helvetians, this time decisively.
September – Caesar decisively defeats the forces of the Germanic chieftain Ariovistus near modern Belfort
57 BC –
Battle of the Axona (Aisne) – Caesar defeats the forces of the Belgae under King Galba of Suessiones.
Battle of the Sabis (Sambre) – Caesar defeats the Nervii.
Battle of Octodurus (Martigny) – Servius Galba defeats the Seduni and Veragri.
53 BC – Battle of Carrhae – Roman triumvir Crassus is disastrously defeated and killed by the Parthians. Crassus has molten gold poured down his throat by his captors. Starts the 500 years of Roman-Persian Wars.
52 BC – Battle of Alesia – Caesar defeats the Gallic rebel Vercingetorix, completing the Roman conquest of Gallia Comata.
49 BC –
June – Battle of Ilerda – Caesar’s army surround Pompeian forces and cause them to surrender.
24 August – Battle of the Bagradas River – Caesar’s general Gaius Curio is defeated in North Africa by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. Curio commits suicide.
48 BC –
10 July – Battle of Dyrrhachium – Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat by Pompey in Macedonia
9 August – Battle of Pharsalus – Caesar decisively defeats Pompey, who flees to Egypt
47 BC –
February – Battle of the Nile – Caesar defeats the forces of the Egyptian king Ptolemy XIII
May – Battle of Zela – Caesar defeats Pharnaces II of Pontus. This is the battle where he famously said Veni, vidi, vici. (I came, I saw, I conquered.)
46 BC –
4 January – Battle of Ruspina – Caesar loses perhaps as much as a third of his army to Titus Labienus
6 February – Battle of Thapsus – Caesar defeats the Pompeian army of Metellus Scipio in North Africa.
45 BC 17 March – Battle of Munda – In his last victory, Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompey the Younger in Hispania. Labienus is killed in the battle and the Younger Pompey captured and executed.
43 BC –
14 April – Battle of Forum Gallorum – Antony, besieging Caesar’s assassin Decimus Brutus in Mutina, defeats the forces of the consul Pansa, who is killed, but is then immediately defeated by the army of the other consul, Hirtius
21 April – Battle of Mutina – Antony is again defeated in battle by Hirtius, who is killed. Although Antony fails to capture Mutina, Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly thereafter.
42 BC –
3 October – First Battle of Philippi – Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar’s assassins Marcus Brutus and Cassius. Although Brutus defeats Octavian, Antony defeats Cassius, who commits suicide.
23 October – Second Battle of Philippi – Brutus’s army is decisively defeated by Antony and Octavian. Brutus escapes, but commits suicide soon after.
41 BC – Battle of Perugia – Mark Antony’s brother Lucius Antonius and his wife Fulvia are defeated by Octavian.
36 BC – Battle of Naulochus – Octavian’s fleet, under the command of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa defeats the forces of the rebel Sextus Pompeius.
31 BC, 2 September – Battle of Actium – Octavian decisively defeats Antony and Cleopatra in a naval battle near Greece.
25 BC –
Battle of Vellica – Roman forces under Augustus against the Cantabri people, Roman victory.
Siege of Aracillum – Roman forces under Gaius Antistius Vetus against the Cantabri people, Roman victory.
16 BC – Clades Lolliana – The troops of Consul Marcus Lollius Paulinus are defeated by West Germanic warriors in Gaul.
11 BC – Battle of the Lupia River – Roman forces under Augustus’s stepson Drusus win a victory in Germany.
1st century AD

9, September – Battle of the Teutoburg Forest – German leader and roman citizen Arminius ambushes three Roman legions under the command of general Publius Quintilius Varus betraying him.
16 – Battle of the Weser River Legions under Germanicus defeat German tribes of Arminius
43 – Battle of the Medway – Claudius and general Aulus Plautius defeat a confederation of British Celtic tribes. Roman invasion of Britain begins
49 – The Siege of Uspe – Roman auxiliaries under Julius Aquila and King Cotys besiege the rebel forces of Siraces and Mithridates
50 – Battle of Caer Caradoc – British chieftain Caractacus is defeated and captured by the Romans under Ostorius Scapula.
58 – Sack of Artaxata by Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo during the Roman–Parthian War over Armenia
59 – Capture of Tigranocerta by Corbulo.
60 – Battle of Camulodunum – Boudica begins her uprising against the Romans by capturing and then sacking Camulodunum (modern day Colchester) then moves on Londinium (London).
61 – Battle of Watling Street – The uprising of the British queen Boudica against the Romans is defeated by Suetonius Paullinus
62 – Battle of Rhandeia – Romans under Lucius Caesennius Paetus are defeated by a Parthian-Armenian army under King Tiridates of Parthia.
66–73 The First Jewish–Roman War – Battle of Beth-Horon – Jewish forces led by Eleazar ben Simon defeat a Roman punitive force led by Cestius Gallus, Governor of Syria
69 –
Winter – Battle of ‘Forum Julii’ Othonian forces defeat a small group of Vitellianist auxiliaries in Gallia Narbonensis
14 April – Battle of Bedriacum – Vitellius, commander of the Rhine armies, defeats Emperor Otho and seizes the throne.
24 October – Second Battle of Bedriacum – Forces under Antonius Primus, the commander of the Danube armies, loyal to Vespasian, defeat the forces of Emperor Vitellius.
71 – Battle of Scotch Corner
73 – Battle of Masada
84 – Battle of Mons Graupius. Romans under Gnaeus Julius Agricola defeat the Caledonians.
87-88 – Domitian’s Dacian War (First Battle of Tapae)
87 – Dacian King Decebalus crushes the Roman army at Tapae (today Transylvania, Romania), Legio V Alaudae and general Cornelius Fuscus perish in battle.
88 – the Romans return and obtain a victory in the same battleground, but the offensive is halted and a peace treaty is concluded.
2nd century AD

101 – Second Battle of Tapae – Trajan defeats Decebalus, with heavy losses.
102 – Battle of Tropheum Traiani – Adamclisi. Roman forces led by Trajan annihilate a mixed Dacian-Roxolano-Sarmatae army, with heavy casualties on the Roman side.
106 – Battle of Sarmisegetuza – A Roman army led by Trajan conquers and destroys the Dacian capital. Part of Dacia is annexed to the Roman Empire.
115–117 The Jewish second War the Kitos War.
132–135 The Jewish third War Bar Kokhba’s revolt.
170 – Battle of Carnuntum – Marcomannic King Ballomar defeats the Roman Army and invade Italy .
178-179 – Praetorian Prefect Teratenius Paternus defeats the Quadi.
179 or 180 – Battle of Laugaricio – Marcus Valerius Maximianus defeats the Quadi in Slovakia .
193 –
Battle of Cyzicus – Septimius Severus, the new Emperor, defeats his eastern rival Pescennius Niger
Battle of Nicaea – Severus again defeats Niger
194 – Battle of Issus (194) – Severus finally defeats Niger.
197, 17 February – Battle of Lugdunum – Emperor Septimius Severus defeats and kills his rival Clodius Albinus, securing full control over the Empire.
3rd century AD

217 – Battle of Nisibis (217) – Bloody stalemate between the Parthians and the Roman army under Emperor Macrinus.
218, 18 June – Battle of Antioch – Varius Avitus defeats Emperor Macrinus to claim the throne under the name Elagabalus.
238 – Battle of Carthage (238) – Troops loyal to the Roman Emperor Maximinus Thrax defeat and kill his successor Gordian II.
243 – Battle of Resaena – Roman forces under Gordian III defeat the Persians under Shapur I.
250 – Battle of Philippopolis – King Cuiva of the Goths defeats a Roman army.
251, 1 July – Battle of Abrittus – Goths defeat and kill the Roman Emperors Decius and Herennius Etruscus
259 – Battle of Mediolanum – Emperor Gallienus decisively defeats the Alamanni that invaded Italy
260 – Battle of Edessa – King Shapur I of Persia defeats and captures the Roman Emperor Valerian
268 – Battle of Naissus – Emperor Gallienus and his generals Claudius and Aurelian decisively defeat the Goths.
268 – Battle of Lake Benacus – Romans under Emperor Claudius II defeat the Alamanni
271 –
Battle of Placentia – Emperor Aurelian is defeated by the Alamanni forces invading Italy
Battle of Fano – Aurelian defeats the Alamanni, who begin to retreat from Italy
Battle of Pavia (271) – Aurelian destroys the retreating Alamanni army.
272 –
Battle of Immae – Aurelian defeats the army of Zenobia of Palmyra
Battle of Emesa – Aurelian decisively defeats Zenobia.
274 – Battle of Châlons (274) – Aurelian defeats the Gallic usurper Tetricus, reestablishing central control of the whole empire.
285 – Battle of the Margus – The usurper Diocletian defeats the army of the Emperor Carinus, who is killed.
296 – Battle of Callinicum – Romans under the Caesar Galerius are defeated by the Persians under Narseh.
298 –
Battle of Lingones – Caesar Constantius Chlorus defeats the Alamanni
Battle of Vindonissa – Constantius again defeats the Alamanni
4th century AD

312 –
Battle of Turin – Constantine I defeats forces loyal to Maxentius.
Battle of Verona – Constantine I defeats more forces loyal to Maxentius.
28 October – Battle of Milvian Bridge – Constantine I defeats Maxentius and takes control of Italy.
313, 30 October – Battle of Tzirallum – In the eastern part of the Empire, the forces of Licinius defeat Maximinus.
314, 8 October – Battle of Cibalae – Constantine defeats Licinius
316 – Battle of Mardia – Constantine again defeats Licinius, who cedes Illyricum to Constantine.
324 –
3 July – Battle of Adrianople – Constantine defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium
July – Battle of the Hellespont – Flavius Julius Crispus, son of Constantine, defeats the naval forces of Licinius
18 September – Battle of Chrysopolis – Constantine decisively defeats Licinius, establishing his sole control over the empire.
344 – Battle of Singara – Emperor Constantius II fights an indecisive battle against King Shapur II of Persia (approximate date)
351 – Battle of Mursa Major – Emperor Constantius II defeats the usurper Magnentius
353 – Battle of Mons Seleucus – Final defeat of Magnentius by Constantius II
356 – Battle of Reims – Caesar Julian is defeated by the Alamanni
357 – Battle of Strasbourg – Julian expels the Alamanni from the Rhineland
359 – Battle of Amida – Sassanids capture Amida from Romans
363 – Battle of Ctesiphon – Emperor Julian defeats Shapur II of Persia outside the walls of the Persian capital, but is unable to take the city, and his death leads to an ultimate disaster on the retreat back to Roman territory.
366 – Battle of Thyatira – The army of the Roman emperor Valens defeats the usurper Procopius.
367 – Battle of Solicinium – Romans under Emperor Valentinian I defeat yet another Alamanni incursion.
377 – Battle of the Willows – Roman troops fight an inconclusive battle against the Goths
378 –
Battle of Argentovaria – Western Emperor Gratianus is victorious over the Alamanni, yet again.
9 August – Battle of Adrianople – Thervings under Fritigern defeat and kill the Eastern Emperor Valens
380 – Battle of Thessalonica – The new Eastern Emperor, Theodosius I, is also defeated by the Thervings under Fritigern.
388 – Battle of the Save – Emperor Theodosius I defeats the usurper Magnus Maximus.
394, 6 September – Battle of the Frigidus – Theodosius I defeats and kills the usurper Eugenius and his Frankish magister militum Arbogast.
5th century AD

402, 6 April – Battle of Pollentia – Stilicho stymies the Visigoths under Alaric.
402, June – Battle of Verona – Stilicho again defeats Alaric, who withdraws from Italy.
406, 31 December – Battle of Mainz – between the Franks “foederati” and an alliance of Vandals, Suevi and Alans.
410, 24 August – Sack of Rome – Visigoths under Alaric sack Rome.
419 – Battle of the Nervasos Mountains – Roman forces together with the Suebi defeat a combined Vandals and Alans army as the Germanic tribes reach the Iberian Peninsula.
432 – Battle of Ravenna – Bonifacius defeats rival Roman general Flavius Aëtius, but is mortally wounded in the process.
436 – Battle of Narbonne – Flavius Aëtius again defeats the Visigoths under Theodoric I.
447 – Battle of the Utus – The East Romans narrowly repulse the attack of Attila the Hun in an indecisive battle.
451, June – Battle of Châlons – The Romans under General Flavius Aëtius, and Visigoths under King Theodoric I, repulse the attack of Attila the Hun. Theodoric is killed in the battle.
455 – Sack of Rome by Geiseric, King of the Vandals
463 – Battle of Orleans – Gallo-Roman and Salian Frank forces under the command of Aegidius defeat a force of Visigoths at Orleans.
486 – Battle of Soissons – Clovis I defeats Syagrius, last Roman commander in Gaul, and annexes the Roman rump state into the Frankish realm.
493 – Battle of Mons Badonicus – Romano-British under Ambrosius Aurelianus decisively defeat the Anglo-Saxon invaders.
6th century AD

Wars of Justinian I
530 –
Battle of Dara – Justinian I’s commander Belisarius defeats the Persians
Battle of Satala – Byzantine Empire defeats the Sassanid Empire
531 – Battle of Callinicum – Persian spahbod Azarethes defeats Belisarius
533 –
13 September Battle of Ad Decimum (or “Battle of Carthage (533)”) Belisarius defeats Vandals near Carthage
15 December Battle of Tricamarum Belisarius defeats again the Vandals near Carthage.
546 – Sack of Rome by Totila, King of the Ostrogoths
552 – Battle of Taginae – Narses replaces Belisarius and defeats Ostrogoths under Totila
553 – Battle of Mons Lactarius Narses defeats the Ostrogoths under Teia
554, October – Battle of the Volturnus – Narses defeats the Franks
555 – Siege of Phasis – Byzantine Empire defeats the Sassanid Empire
573 – Siege of Dara – Sassanid Empire captures the strategic fortress of Dara
576 – Battle of Melitene – Byzantine Empire defeats the Sassanid Empire
586 – Battle of Solachon – Byzantine Empire defeats the Sassanid Empire
588 – Battle of Martyropolis – Byzantine Empire defeats the Sassanid Empire



— Language —

The native language of the Romans was Latin, an Italic language the grammar of which relies little on word order, conveying meaning through a system of affixes attached to word stems.Its alphabet was based on the Etruscan alphabet, which was in turn based on the Greek alphabet. Although surviving Latin literature consists almost entirely of Classical Latin, an artificial and highly stylised and polished literary language from the 1st century BC, the spoken language of the Roman Empire was Vulgar Latin, which significantly differed from Classical Latin in grammar and vocabulary, and eventually in pronunciation.
While Latin remained the main written language of the Roman Empire, Greek came to be the language spoken by the well-educated elite, as most of the literature studied by Romans was written in Greek. In the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which later became the Byzantine Empire, Latin was never able to replace Greek, and after the death of Justinian, Greek became the official language of the Byzantine government. The expansion of the Roman Empire spread Latin throughout Europe, and Vulgar Latin evolved into dialects in different locations, gradually shifting into many distinct Romance languages.


— Rome’s Culture —

Life in ancient Rome revolved around the city and the people of Rome. The city had a big number of great structures like the Colosseum, the Forum of Trajan and the Pantheon. It had theatres, gymnasiums, marketplaces, functional sewers, bath complexes complete with libraries and shops, and fountains with fresh drinking water supplied by hundreds of miles of aqueducts. Throughout the territory under the control of ancient Rome, residential architecture ranged from modern houses to country villas. In the capital city of Rome, there were imperial residences on the elegant Palatine Hill, from which the word palace derives. The low Plebian and middle Equestrian classes lived in the city center, packed into apartments, or Insulae, which were almost like modern ghettos. These areas, often built by upper class property owners to rent, were often centred upon collegia or taberna. The people who occupied these areas were provided with a free supply of grain, and entertained by gladatorial games, were enrolled as clients of patrons among the upper class Patricians, whose assistance they sought and whose interests they upheld. Wealthy romans ate banquets of delicious food, including bread, meat and a wide variety of fruit and vegetables, while poor Romans ate basic foods such as bread and homegrown crops.



— The Citizens of Ancient Rome —

Citizenship in ancient Rome was an important political and legal status to freeborn individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance.
In the Roman Republic and Empire, people living permanently within the Roman state could roughly be divided into several classes:
A male Roman citizen enjoyed a wide range of privileges and protections defined in detail by the Roman state. A citizen could, under certain exceptional circumstances, be deprived of his citizenship.
Roman women had a limit of citizenship. Although they were not allowed to vote or stand for civil or public office. The rich might participate in public life by funding building projects or sponsoring religious ceremonies and other events. Women had the right to own property, to engage in business, and to obtain a divorce, but their legal rights varied over time. Marriages were an important form of political alliance during the Republic.
Client state citizens and allies of Rome could receive a limited form of Roman citizenship such as the Latin Right. While such citizens could vote in Roman elections, it was impractical.
Slaves were considered property and lacked legal personhood. Over time, they acquired a few protections under Roman law. Some slaves were freed by manumission for services rendered, or through a testamentary provision when their master died. Once free, they faced few barriers, beyond normal social snobbery, to participating in Roman society. The principle that a person could become a citizen by law rather than birth was enshrined in Roman mythology; when Romulus defeated the Sabines in battle, he promised the war captives that in Rome they could become citizens.
Freedmen, were former slaves who had gained their freedom. They were not automatically given citizenship and lacked some privileges such as running for executive magistracies. The children of freedmen and women were born as free citizens; for example, the father of the poet Horace was a freedman.



— Welcome to Ancient Rome! —

Come join us as we embark on a journey back in time, 2766 years ago to the once great and powerful, Ancient Rome. We will discover the truth about what life was really like back then and how it has evolved over time. Watch as the almighty Ancient Rome rises to the top of the world only to fall hard on it’s knees in defeat. We present to you, Ancient Rome.

– Grace Tennant and Star Wanyama

— The History of Rome’s Governing System —

The governing system of Rome started out where there was one ruler; a king, you might say, who made all the rules and decisions themselves. Remus was the first ruler of Rome in the 2nd Century and ruled from 753 BC – 715 BC. Numa Pompilius then took over and was king until 673 BC. The following rulers between then and the 6th Century included:
– Tullus Hostilius (673 BC – 642 BC) doubled the population of Rome and built the Curia Hostilia.
– Ancus Martius (642 BC – 617 BC) whose grandfather was Numa Pompilius, the second ruler of Rome. He also was a bridge builder and had the bridge across the Tiber River dedicated to him.
In 616 BC, the first Etruscan king by the name of L. Tarquinius Priscus brutally ruled Rome until 579 BC. He added 100 new senators to the Senate of Rome and helped Rome grow larger. The next two rulers were both Etruscan and they ruled in the same manner as Tarquinius. In 509 BC, the Romans rebelled, ridding the last of the Etruscan kings and becoming the first republic in the world. Rome then was known as the most powerful city-state in Europe. Later on in 27 BC, Octavian ends the republic of Rome and Rome becomes an empire. .



— The Beginnings of an Empire —

So, how exactly did Rome come to be?
Legend tells that Rome was originally founded by Romulus, the twin brother of Remus. The story says that the two twins were abandoned and then found by a she-wolf who then went on to raise them as her own. When they were children they aspired to build a town together at the site where she-wolf took them in. Unfortunately, in 753 BC Remus was murdered by Romulus during a fight. Romulus then became the first ruler of many villages, which were once where present-day Rome now stands. A century later, the villages had united to become the city known today as Rome, with a wolf as their symbol.